Interesting about the different attitudes about smoking between the US and the UK. We watched the 1966 movie "Alfie" last night and my husband and I both laughed when the patient in a wheelchair in the tuberculosis sanitarium said his doctor had limited him to five cigarettes a day. It's a shame how long the tobacco industry suppressed the research about cigarettes and now the sugar and high fructose corn syrup industries are trying to do the same.

It would seem to be a good idea for medical professionals to ask parents to stop smoking and explain why before putting children on medications for ADHD or disruptive behavior.

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Interesting research. What I would add is that there are similar correlations with the consumption of dairy foods, especially cheeses. In the case of cheese and dairy, the substances are casomorphins, which are protein fragments derived from the digestion of the milk protein, casein. They have an opioid effect and varying the intake of them can have the same high vs. withdrawal effects seen in those taking opioids.

Dairy is everywhere in the food chain, perhaps even more so in Europe where production is dairy products has been enshrined by the Common Agricultural Policy. In the U.S. there is also a strong industry forking over lots of advertising money.

It would be interesting to examine diets of those you reference to see how much dairy in addition to smoking was involved. My experience in the UK has been that I am looked as problematic when I ask for porridge with just water in the morning rather than cooked in whole milk.

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